Iron deficiency usually develops in nursing piglets reared in confinement mainly as a result of low iron content of sow¹s colostrum and milk, elimination of contact with iron from soil. Numerous iron preparations are available for the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia but their efficacy and bioavailability is low. Iron is essential for the organism. In ionised forms (Fe++, Fe), it constitutes an integrated part of a lot of different functional proteins.
During the process of obtaining nano disperse iron deformation of the crystal lattice takes place, which increases the superficial active atoms of iron. Iron in this form aquires new physical and chemical properties not inherent in the natural macrocrystal. As a result an ultra disperse system containing in its structure atoms of iron, electrons, and also the ionic form arises.
Nano-disperse form of iron was processed by an ultrasound method in an aqueous medium to prepare a suspension, containing electrons, atoms of iron, ions, mono, bivalent, and trivalent forms of iron. These properties together with other characteristics (small particle size, unique physical properties due to their nano size, and corrosion resistance) makes nano-disperse iron to be of great scientific interest especially in the treatment of anemia in animals
This work was therefore, conducted to determine the efficacy and therapeutic effect of nano-disperse form of iron during iron-deficiency anemia in pigs.
21 day old pigs from 3 litters of the Large White breed were used. The pigs did not receive any supplemental iron. laboratory analysis of blood samples showed that blood erythrocytes were all hypochromic. Anisocytosis, poikilocytosis, was observed. Analysis of a biopsy of the bone marrow revealed the prevalence of nonheme forms of erythrokaryocytes, which is an indication of low levels of iron. Their average haemoglobin concentration was determined to be 7 grams/decilitre.
Results obtained on the 21st day after pigs in the experimental group received nano-disperse iron showed that their basic haematological values were within physiological norm. It was established that the content of iron in erythrocytes was 95- 100 mg % , in whole blood 28-45 mg %), and in blood serum 0,08-0,18 mg % respectively.
The activation of erythropoesis and synthesis of hemoglobin takes place with the participation of iron containing preparations, which must be bioavailable and be in the necessary, accessible ionic form.
Therefore, due to the wide scope of physical and chemical influence on different systems in the organism nano-disperse form of iron had a marked therapeutic effect, which was reflected in results obtained after its application during iron-deficiency anemia in young pigs.
Godwin A.C. Okpattah
The Central Research Scientific Institute of Agrochemical Services
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