A number of studies have revealed better biocompatibility and long-term effectiveness of hydroxyapatite (HAP)-coated implants. However, according to the FDA review in 1998, the coating of dental implants indicated a maximum of 66% purity in the best HAP coated dental implants. The use of poor quality of HAP as a starting material and the high temperature attained during plasma-based coatings are the major cause of impurities in the HAP-coated implants. Consequently, the impurities reduce benefits of the HAP-coated implants significantly in the dental and orthopedic applications.
Nano Interface Technology, Inc. (NITI) has successfully synthesized unagglomerated nanoparticles (13-15 nm) of HAP. The synthesized nanoparticle of HAP is highly crystalline and ultra-pure at the molecular level. The X-ray diffraction analysis of HAP revealed nanoparticles having size of 11-12 nm, which is in very close agreement with the TEM results. The lattice parameter matches with the NIST standard. The raw X-ray diffractogram having no background or hump indicates the presence ultra-pure materials. The IR analysis also suggests Ca/P ratio of 1.667. The coating of implants with the nanoparticles of HAP will provide very high surface area. The low temperature coating technique being developed at the NITI will provide implants having ultra-pure HAP with very high surface area for better osteogenic properties. The application of innovative nanotechnology can improve success rate of implants from 80% to 97%, thereby, saving billions of dollar. The success rate of the orthopedic and dental implants are in the range of 80-90%. The improvement in the coating of implants can increase the success rate to 97%. A 5% improvement in the success rate can save $3.2 Billions per year based on the cost which otherwise would be required for the revision of 5% of such medical procedures.