Shungite (Sh) are the black Precambrian rocks of Karelia (Russia) where the first natural occurrence of fullerenes was found. While developing optimal methods for extracting from carbon-rich Sh  we faced selective concentration of a substance by fullerenes and natural fullerene-based self-assemblies .
During latest experiments we detected the synthesis of carbon disulfide in Sh treated with only water and presence of labile sulfur in water-Sh extracts. Carbon disulfide synthesis during such processes is the connecting-link between the possibility of natural fullerene extraction and fullerene arrangement in Sh carbon, and is the key factor in the possibility of natural fullerene extraction using only water. Such synthesis was realized by integrating the processes of extracting, concentrating, crystallization and purification. While developing such methods we detected the processes of assembling natural fullerene-based supramolecular centers of core-shell type into large scale structures and unusual forms of substance self-organization: fullerene-like quasi-crystal particles from icosahedral composite molecules of type a core C60 - shell S42 structure, zeolite-like particles, bifurcated carbon and carbon monosulfide filamentary crystals, thread-like vitreous carbon particles.
The presence of the morphological features of long-range order in all self-assembling macroscopic structures, modeling experiments, spectroscopic evidence, mass spectrometric measurements, SEM and TEM characterization confirm their synthesis from natural fullerene-based supramolecular centers of core-shell type.
Although various such structures mainly consist of carbon their conductivity are changed from well conducting up to non-conducting. So options for the using equipment (Digital SEM and TEM < SELMI>, Sumy, UKRAINE) include variable pressure technology to investigate non-conducting specimens in their original state without intrusive preparation and elemental analysis.
1. Osipov EV, Reznikov VA, Carbon, 2002; 40, Issue 6, p.961-5.
2. Osipov EV, Reznikov VA , Abraitiene A, Osipov SE. Natural fullerene-based self-assemblies. Extended abstracts, 10th annual conf. on molec. nanotech. Washington DC Bethesda (Maryland. USA): Foresight Institute, 2002; 33-34
Eduard V. Osipov
Lithuanian Textile Institute
Vilnius, LT-2010 Lithuania
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