New techniques for thermal management in nanocomposite polymers are proposed using low percentages of dispersed carbon nanotubes to control the degree of isotropy in thermal conductivity. Samples containing nanotubes are prepared using conventional polymer processing techniques, and methods for increased surface modification of the nanotubes to promote wetting and dispersion within the polymer are discussed. Transient heating methods are employed to map directional differences in thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites relative to vapor-grown fiber control group samples. Microstructural changes affecting differences in thermal conductivity are characterized using Raman and XRD. Heat transport effects normal to the sample surface are compared to previous research in conductive polymers to identify unique contributions to thermal management from nanotube shape, size, and distribution.