This talk will focus on two important aspects of nanotechnology, particularly as they are relevant to the implementation of molecular-scale electronics. The first aspect is the design, synthesis and study of new molecular architectures that embody new functions. The use of electroactive dendrimers as a vehicle to study encapsulation behaviors necessary for electronic information storage will be presented. In particular, the relationship between the structure of the molecule and its electronic behaviors will be elucidated. The second aspect is the development of routine, reliable, reproduceable ways of arranging and probing molecules. To this end, we will show how a combination of lithographic methods on organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be used to form chemically well-defined, patterned surfaces. These surfaces can form the basis of nanometer-scale, molecular electronic devices. This discussion will focus on (1) the engineering and the chemistry behind nanometer scale lithography on SAMs including an assessment of its strengths and limitations, (2) why the control of chemical functionality is so important for a true, nanometer-scale process and (3) demonstration of new, molecular electronic behaviors with potential applicability in devices.