June 9, 2004: Nanotechnology Pioneer Calms Fears of Runaway Replicators
Institute of Physics Publishes Article on Safe Exponential Manufacturing
Palo Alto, CA – June 9, 2004 – The overactive fear of grey goo and out-of-control nano-replicators is scientifically addressed in the paper "Safe Exponential Manufacturing," released today by The Institute of Physics in their journal Nanotechnology. Co-authored by Dr. Eric Drexler, founder of Foresight Institute and author of Nanosystems and Engines of Creation, and Chris Phoenix, Director of Research at the Center for Responsible Nanotechnology (CRN), "Safe Exponential Manufacturing" analyzes risks, concerns, progress, misperceptions, and safety guidelines for future molecular nanotechnology (MNT) development.
Updated Molecular Nanotechnology Concepts
Drexler introduced the concepts of nanotechnology through his 1981 article in the Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences and his 1986 book Engines of Creation. The PNAS article was based on a biological model of molecular machine systems — hence the early focus on self-replication — but the logic of the technology led to the very different, non-biological approach described by Nanosystems in 1992 and in the more recent literature.
"Research and thinking in this area has come a long way since the earlier works," says Drexler. "Molecular machine systems can be thoroughly non-biological, and self replication is not necessary."
In particular, it turns out that developing manufacturing systems that use tiny, self-replicating machines would be needlessly inefficient and complicated. The simpler, more efficient, and more obviously safe approach is to make nanoscale tools and put them together in factories big enough to make what you want. Throughout history, people have used tools to make more and better tools. That's how we got from blacksmiths tools to automated industries. The natural path for nanotechnology is similar.
Since the publication of Nanosystems, the focus for Drexler and his colleagues has been on desktop-scale manufacturing devices. This nano-factory is based on the convergent assembly architecture, developed by Professor Ralph Merkle, where small parts are put together to form larger parts, starting with nanoscale blocks. The machines in this would work like the conveyor belts and assembly robots in a factory, doing similar jobs. If you pulled one out, it would be as inert as a light bulb pulled from its socket. See Illustrations
Foresight Institute Guidelines for Molecular Manufacturing
With the fear of runaway replicators now in better perspective, attention on molecular nanotechnology can be directed to more important issues, including how the technology will be used, and by whom. Molecular nanotechnology will introduce a clean, large-scale manufacturing capacity that will impact humanity on a global level. These systems will affect all areas of society including medicine, the environment, national security, space development, economics, intellectual property, and privacy.
"To prepare for the unprecedented power of molecular machine systems, Foresight Institute created the Foresight Guidelines on Molecular Nanotechnology," said Christine Peterson, President and co-founder of Foresight Institute. "Rather than focus on scenarios of runaway replicators, we should anticipate how molecular manufacturing can be used to improve our health and quality of life, restore the environment, and prevent acts of aggression."
About Foresight Institute
Foresight Institute is the leading public interest organization focused on nanotechnology. Formed in 1986 by K. Eric Drexler and Christine Peterson, Foresight provides education, information, and public policy development on the topic of molecular nanotechnology and molecular manufacturing. The organization's goal is to guide emerging technologies to improve the human condition and environment.
About The Institute of Physics
The Institute of Physics is a leading international professional society with over 37,000 members, which promotes the advancement and dissemination of knowledge of and education in the science of physics, pure and applied. It has a world-wide membership and is a major international player in scientific publishing and electronic dissemination of research in physics and nanotechnology.
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IOP Published paper – Safe Exponential Manufacturing,
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