At the 2013 Conference Dean Astumian contrasted macroscopic machines at static equilibrium and molecular machines at dynamic equilibrium, and presented information ratchets and microscopic reversibility as the organizing principle of molecular machines.
Archive for the 'Nanobiotechnology' Category
DNA sequences designed to either stimulate a specific immune response or to down-regulate an undesirable response deliver superior performance when organized on nanoparticles to reach their intended cellular targets.
Gold nanotubes engineered to a specified length, modified surfaces, and to have other desirable characteristics showed expected abilities to enter tumor cells in laboratory studies, and to distribute to tissues within live mice as intended.
Single-molecule spectroscopy makes possible adding one rung at a time to a foundational rung grafted to a surface to make a long nanotube scaffold of predetermined sequence.
Positioning two or more molecules along a long DNA strand can cause the DNA molecule to adopt different shapes if the molecules interact. Quickly and cheaply separating these shapes by a simple gel electrophoresis assay provides a wealth of information about how the molecules interact.
Design and computational simulation of amyloid proteins of diverse functions from diverse sources enable the self-assembly of proteins that could provide scaffolds for diverse applications.
RNA origami brings new dimensions to nucleic acid nanotechnology by exploiting the much greater variety of RNA structural motifs (compared to DNA) to do what cannot easily be done with DNA origami, like fold into predetermined nanostructures rapidly while being transcribed.
In tests in a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis, core-shell nanoparticles, composed of block copolymers and targeted to sites of inflammation and vascular injury, delivered a bioactive peptide that improved key properties of advanced plaques.
A commentary over at Gizmodo argues that ideas about molecular manufacturing that sounded like science fiction in 1986 now sound more like science fact.
An overview of three decades of progress in DNA nanotechnology emphasizes bringing programmed motion to DNA nanostructures, including efforts to incorporate design principles from macroscopic mechanical engineering.
Variable length single-stranded DNA springs determine how far a hinge of double-stranded DNA joining two stiff sections of DNA origami can bend.
Scaffolded DNA origami is combined with hinges of single- or double-stranded DNA to built simple machines parts that have been combined to program simple to complex motions.
Combinations of different types of DNA nanorobots, implementing different logic gates, work together to tag a specific type of cell in a living cockroach depending on the presence or absence of two protein signals.
New software makes it possible to generate 3D structures of proteins without artificially incorporating metal atoms in the proteins, making it possible to study many molecular machines using data that could not previously be analyzed.
Among the smallest molecular robots reported so far, a walker based on phenylarsonous acid with two organic thiol ligands as feet walks through a one-nanometer-diameter protein nanopore channel by taking 0.6 nanometer steps, by thiol exchange, from one cysteine residue to the next.
A more general computational framework predicts the structures of 2D and 3D-curved DNA nanostructures impossible to predict using previously available computational methods. May lead to 3D-printing DNA nanostructures?
Artificial enzymes have been created from nucleic acids that use synthetic molecules instead of ribose or deoxyribose sugars.
Design principles have been developed and tested to construct novel synthetic protein monomers that can self-assemble into large, open protein cages for potential use in vaccines and drug delivery.
Advances in the de novo design of coiled-coil proteins made by two different research groups proceeding by two different routes demonstrate that the range of protein nanostructures potentially available for various molecular machine systems is significantly larger than the range of such structures already exploited by natural selection.
A general framework is presented for using 32-nucleotide DNA bricks to build large two-dimensional crystals up to 80 nm thick and incorporating sophisticated three-dimensional features.